Aquatic Ape Human Ancestor Theory

Aquatic Ape Theory - What is it?

A Brief Summary of AAT - key arguments

A Brief History and Key Proponents of AAT

Current Aquatic Evolution Theories


Alternative theories of human evolution

Wikipedia and the scientific community

. Anatomical Evidence
... Bipedalism
... Birth and babies
... Brain
... Breath control
... Fat
... Fingers, toes and feet
... Furlessness
... Hair and baldness
... Kidneys
... Menopause
... Nose
... Olfactory sense
... Pachyostosis
... Paranasal Sinuses
... Platycephaly
... Sexual features
... Surfer's ear
... Sweating
... Tears
... Underwater vision

. Diet
. Language & Song
. Sleep (USWS)
. Waterside environments
. Sea Gypsies

. Homo erectus - shallow diver

. Fossil evidence
. Paleoecological evidence

A call to scientists...

Recent News and Updates

Books and publications

Videos links



Books, papers and publications

The Waterside Ape: An Alternative Account of Human EvolutionThe Waterside Ape

Hardcover – 27 Mar 2019

by Peter H. Rhys Evans (Author)

This book presents the latest evidence on the controversial ‘Waterside Ape’ theory of human evolution, what used to be known as the ‘Aquatic Ape’ theory. The traditional ‘Savannah Ape’ theory that early hominid apes evolved on the grass plains of East Africa 6- 7 million years ago from our quadruped ape ancestors by coming down from the trees on to the savannah and stood upright in order to see further, has been accepted by archaeologists and anthropologists since before the time of Darwin, based on geological and fossil evidence. Recent scientific evidence largely discredits this hypothesis, but mainstream teaching and public understanding is still based on traditional lines.

 Key selling features:
·  Presents the latest evidence for a close association between riparian habitats and the origin of humans
·  Reviews the "savannah ape" hypothesis for human origins
·  Describes various anatomical adaptations that are associated with hypotheses of human evolution
·  Explores characteristics from the head and neck such as skull and sinus structures, the larynx and ear structures
·  and functions
·  Corroborates a novel theory for the origin of humankind

Product details

  • Hardcover: 248 pages
  • Publisher: CRC Press; 1 edition (27 Mar. 2019)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0367145510
  • ISBN-13: 978-0367145514
  • Product Dimensions: 14 x 21.6 cm

    About the Author
    Peter Rhys Evans was a Senior Lecturer at the University of Birmingham and the Institute of Cancer Research. He was also the Chief of the Department of ENT/Head and Neck Surgery at the Royal Marsden Hospital. He has authored or co-authored over 200 scientific publications including five books. His award winning book Principles and Practice of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology , 2nd edition, was published in 2009. He served as a Sub-Editor for the Journal of Laryngology and Otology for nearly a decade.

    Available from Amazon and other book sellers.

Westenhöfer, Max (1942). Der Eigenweg des Menschen: dargestellt auf Grund von vergleichend morphologischen Untersuchungen über die Artbildung und Menschwerdung. Berlin: Die Medizinische Welt. "The unique path of man, depicted on the basis of comparative morphological studies on the formation of species and the origin of humanity"

Books by Elaine Morgan

Other Books

"Was Man More Aquatic in the Past? Fifty Years After Alistair Hardy. Waterside Hypothoses of Human Evolution"
Edited by Mario Vaneechoutte, Algis Kuliukas, Marc Verhaegen

The book starts from the observation that humans are very different from the other primates. Why are we naked? Why do we speak? Why do we walk upright? Fifty years ago, in 1960, marine biologist Sir Alister Hardy tried to answer this when he announced his so-called aquatic hypothesis: human ancestors did not live in dry savannahs as traditional anthropology assumes, but have adapted to live at the edge between land and water, gathering both terrestrial and aquatic foods.

This eBook is an up-to-date collection of the views of the most important protagonists of this long-neglected theory of human evolution at the 50th anniversary of its announcement in 1960. It brings together the views of leading scientists such as anthrolopogy professor Phillip Tobias, marine biologist Richard Ellis, waterbirth gynaecologist Michel Odent, nutritional biologist Michael Crawford and science writer Elaine Morgan.

The Birth of Homo, the Marine Chimpanzee" by Michel Odent. (Pinter and Martin Ltd, 2017)

"Drawing on a diversity of fast-developing disciplines including genetics, physiology and pathology as well as the history of canoeing and studies of the fluctuation of sea levels, revoltionary thinker and birth pioneer Michel Odent examines the case for viewing the genus Homo as a 'marine chimpanzee' - particularly adapted to coastal areas. By exploring the practical implications of this vision of our species, including in the period surrounding birth, the author raises questions about the very survival of humanity. At a time in history when human domination of Nature is more profound than ever before, are we on the cusp of a 'symbiotic revolution'?"

Papers by Marc Verhaegen (et al)

  • Verhaegen, Marc (1985). The Aquatic Ape Theory: Evidence and a Possible Scenario. Medical Hypotheses Vol:16 Pages:17-32
  • Verhaegen, Marc (1988). Aquatic Ape Theory, Speech Origins: a hypothesis. Speculations in Science and Technology Vol:11 Pages:165-171
  • Verhaegen, Marc (1990). African Ape ancestry. Human Evolution Vol:5: Pages:295-297
  • Verhaegen, Marc (1991). Aquatic Features in Fossil Hominids?. In: Roede, Machteld; Wind, Jan; Patrick, John; Reynolds, Vernon (eds.), (1991). Aquatic Ape: Fact of Fiction: Proceedings from the Valkenburg Conference. Souvenir Press (London)
  • Verhaegen, Marc (1991). Human Regulation of Body Temperature and Water Balance. In: Roede, Machteld; Wind, Jan; Patrick, John; Reynolds, Vernon (eds.), (1991). Aquatic Ape: Fact of Fiction: Proceedings from the Valkenburg Conference. Souvenir Press (London)
  • Verhaegen, Marc (1992). Did Robust Australopithecines Partly Feed on Hard Parts of Graminae? Human Evolution Vol:7 Pages:63-64.
  • Verhaegen, Marc (1993). Aquatic versus Savannah: Comparative and Paleo-environmental Evidence. Nutrition and Health Vol:9 Pages:165-191
  • Verhaegen, Marc (1994). Australopithecines: Ancestors of the African Apes? Human Evolution Vol:9 Pages:121-139
  • Verhaegen, Marc (1995). Aquatic Ape Theory, Speech Origins, and Brain Differences with Apes and Monkeys. Medical Hypotheses Vol:44 Pages:409-413
  • Verhaegen, Marc (1996). Morphological Distance Between Australopithecine, Human and Ape Skulls. Human Evolution Vol:11 Pages:35-41.
  • Bender, Rebato; Verhaegen, Marc; Oser, Nicole (1997). Acquisition of human bipedal gait from the viewpoint of the aquatic ape theory. Anthropologischer Anzeiger Vol:55(1) Pages:1-14
  • Verhaegen, Marc; Munro, Stephen (2000). The Origin of Phonetic Abilities: A Study of the Comparative Data With Reference to the Aquatic Theory. ? Vol: Pages:1-12
  • Verhaegen, Marc, Puech, Pierre-Francoise (2000). Hominid lifestyle and diet reconsidered: paleo-environmental and comparative data. Human Evolution Vol:15 Pages:151-162
  • Verhaegen, Marc; Puech, Pierre-Francoise; Munro, Stephen (2002). Aquarboreal Ancestors? Trends in Ecology and Evolution Vol:17 Pages:212-217

Algis Kuliukas
April 2006

Articles and Chapters

2013 “Dunking the Tarzanists: Elaine Morgan and the Aquatic Ape Theory,” in Outsider Scientists: Routes to Innovation in Biology, ed. Oren Harman and Michael R. Dietrich (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), 223-247. [.pdf

2013 "Elaine Morgan Obituary," The Guardian  (July 29, 2013). [link]

2013 “Elaine Morgan and the Aquatic Ape,” guest blog post for Rebekah Higgitt and Vanessa Heggie's The H-Word, hosted by The Guardian  (May 13, 2013). [link]

Website: F. Mansfield, 2015

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