Aquatic Ape Human Ancestor Theory

Aquatic Ape Theory - What is it?

A Brief Summary of AAT - key arguments

A Brief History and Key Proponents of AAT

When / Where / How?

Ape to Human Evolution Timeline

Alternative theories of human evolution

Wikipedia and the scientific community

... Anatomical Evidence
... Bipedalism
... Birth and babies
... Brain
... Breath control
... Descended larynx
... Diet
... Diseases
... Fat
... Fingers, toes and feet
... Furlessness
... Hair and baldness
... Human ailments
... Kidneys
... Language & Song
... Menopause
... Nose
... Olfactory sense
... Pachyostosis
... Paranasal Sinuses
... Platycephaly
... Reverse osmosis
... Sexual features
... Sleep (USWS)
... Surfer's ear
... Sweating
... Tears
... Underwater vision
... Viruses
... Waterside environments

. Homo Ancestors
... Trachillos bipedal hominids
... Homo erectus
... Homo neanderthalensis
... Sea Gypsies/ the Moken
... Homo sapiens - water afinity
... Coastal Migration
... Pan and Gorilla ancestry
... Semi-Aquatic Animals

. Testable Hypotheses
. Fossil evidence
. Genetic evidence
. Paleoecological evidence
. Retroviral marker in apes
. Acheulean handaxes

A call to scientists...

Recent News and Updates

Books and publications


Videos links



News and updates...

How scientists perceive the evolutionary origin of human traits: Results of a survey study


Various hypotheses have been proposed for why the traits distinguishing humans from other primates originally evolved, and any given trait may have been explained both as an adaptation to different environments and as a result of demands from social organization or sexual selection. To find out how popular the different explanations are among scientists, we carried out an online survey among authors of recent scientific papers in journals covering relevant fields of science (paleoanthropology, paleontology, ecology, evolution, human biology). Some of the hypotheses were clearly more popular among the 1,266 respondents than others, but none was universally accepted or rejected. Even the most popular of the hypotheses were assessed “very likely” by <50% of the respondents, but many traits had 1–3 hypotheses that were found at least moderately likely by >70% of the respondents. An ordination of the hypotheses identified two strong gradients. Along one gradient, the hypotheses were sorted by their popularity, measured by the average credibility score given by the respondents. The second gradient separated all hypotheses postulating adaptation to swimming or diving into their own group. The average credibility scores given for different subgroups of the hypotheses were not related to respondent's age or number of publications authored. However, (paleo)anthropologists were more critical of all hypotheses, and much more critical of the water‐related ones, than were respondents representing other fields of expertise. Although most respondents did not find the water‐related hypotheses likely, only a small minority found them unscientific. The most popular hypotheses were based on inherent drivers; that is, they assumed the evolution of a trait to have been triggered by the prior emergence of another human‐specific behavioral or morphological trait, but opinions differed as to which of the traits came first.

The Waterside Ape

Sir David Attenborough introduces the most recent evidence for an aquatic past.

Sir David Attenborough considers whether new evidence will help a once widely ridiculed theory of human origins move towards to mainstream acceptance.

Wednesday 14 September
BBC RADIO 4 (Episode 1) (Episode 2)

28 September 2016:
A reply to Alice Roberts and Mark Maslin:
Our ancestors may indeed have evolved at the shoreline – and here is why...

Acheulian Man Dived for Waterlillies

Beneath Still Waters - Multistage Aquatic Exploitation of Euryale ferox (Salisb.) during the Acheulian

Remains of the highly nutritious aquatic plant Fox nut (Euryale ferox Salisb., Nymphaeaceae) were found at the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot
Ya’aqov, Israel. Here, we present new evidence for complex cognitive strategies of hominins as seen in their exploitation of E.ferox nuts. We draw on
- excavated data &
- parallels observed in traditional collecting & processing practices from Bihar, India.

We suggest that during the early-Mid-Pleistocene, hominids implemented multi-stage procedures, comprising underwater gathering & subsequent
processing (drying, roasting & popping) of E.ferox nuts. Hierarchical processing strategies are observed in the Acheulian lithic reduction sequences and butchering of game at this and other sites, but are poorly understood as regards the exploitation of aquatic plant resources. We highlight the ability of Acheulian hominins to resolve issues related to underwater gathering of E.ferox nuts during he plant's life cycle and to adopt strategies to enhance their nutritive value.

1. Introduction
Studies of the evolution of hominin cognitive abilities & the origins of intelligence & language focus primarily on stone tool manufacture & on the
exploitation of medium-sized to large terrestrial mammals. Here, we examine additional aspects of these cognitive abilities, as reflected in a little-known example of skilled behaviour patterns: the exploitation of aquatic flora & fauna in the wetland habitats of paleo-Lake Hula.

Although wetlands play an important role in supplementing human diet& enhancing its nutritional balance (Joordens cs 2009, Wrangham cs 2009,
Cunnane & Steward(sic) 2010), few studies have explored the nutritional and/or medicinal properties of wetlands plants in the archaeological
context (Stewart 1994, 2010, Colonese cs 2011, Cortés-Sánchez cs 2011, Hardy & Moncel 2011, Verhaegen & Munro 2011).

Along with Trapa natans (Water chestnut), they formed part of the botanically rich aquatic habitat of paleo-Lake Hula (>24 spp of water plants).
Both spp are currently extinct in the Levant. E.ferox & T.natans are floating annual aquatic plants, that grow in low-energy or still-water bodies, generally c 1.5 m deep, occurring within a wetlands ecosystem that was exploited by the GBY Acheulian hominins.

The prickly nature of E.ferox (prickly waterlily) renders gathering& processing its nuts far more difficult than those of T.natans. Here, we present novel evidence for advanced cognitive abilities of Acheulians at GBY, as attested by their adoption of complex multi-stage procedures for collecting & processing E.ferox nuts. E.ferox is widely prevalent in tropical & subtropical regions in ecological contexts similar to paleo-Lake Hula. In many such places, it is collected & processed, using traditional methods by predom.fresh-water fishing communities. The range of these strategies, particularly evident in the water-bodies of N-Bihar (Madhubani District, India), is of immense relevance when examining the archaeological context of E.ferox nut remains at GBY.

The Acheulian site of GBY (GBY fm) is located on the shores of paleo-Lake Hula, Upper Jordan Valley, Dead Sea Rift. This Early- to Mid-Pleistocene sedimentary sequence documents an oscillating freshwater lake, and represents ~100 ky of hominin occupation (MIS 18-20), beginning earlier than 790 ka (Feibel 2001, 2004).

Studies of the 15 excavated archaeological horizons indicate that Acheulian hominins
- repeatedly occupied lake-margins,
- produced stone tools,
- systematically butchered & exploited animals,
- gathered plant food &
- controlled fire.

Keep reading [1]


Ethnographic analogies, when considered with archaeological evidence of nuts, pitted anvils & charred organic material, among other features,
point to the possibility of a complex sequence of exploitation of an aquatic nut, that included gathering by diving, underwater processing,
drying, roasting & possibly popping.

This process adds to a plethora of evidence of Acheulian hominin activities & diverse associated cognitive abilities, all of which emerge from the analyses of early-Mid-Pleistocene Acheulian finds from the Levantine Corridor.

A 17-year-old invented an ingenious way to instantly stop bleeding

A submerged monolith in the Sicilian Channel (central Mediterranean Sea):
Evidence for Mesolithic human activity
Emanuele Lodolo & Zvi Ben-Avraham 2015
doi 10.1016/j.jasrep.2015.07.003

"IOW, the Medit.Sea was getting higher, before the Black Sea deluge occurred. After the LGM c 19 ka, when the land area of Europe was ~40 % larger than it is now, a rel.abrupt global rise in sea-level took place, c 125 ± 5 m (determined by correcting observed sea-level changes for glacio-hydro-isostatic contributions). The Sicilian Channel is one of the shallow shelves of the central Medit.region, where the consequences of changing sea-level were most dramatic & intense, as also occurred in part of the Aegean Sea, the N-Adriatic & the Tunisia & Malta platforms. The Sicilian Channel is geologically part of the N-African continental shelf."

Posted by: Marc Verhaegen

Natalia Molchanova: world's 'greatest freediver' feared dead

Tuesday 4 August 2015 22.58 BST

The woman considered one of the greatest freedivers of all time is feared dead after she failed to surface after a dive off the Mediterranean island of Formentera.

Natalia Molchanova was diving to a planned depth of 35 metres (115ft) with friends on Sunday but failed to surface, her son Alexey Molchanov told the New York Times. Molchanova, 53, holds 41 world records in freediving and can hold her breath for nine minutes. In May, she dived to a depth of 71 metres in waters off Egypt.



Website: F. Mansfield, 2015

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